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Classical Conditioning In the Real World

Identify the components of classical conditioning in each of the following examples:

1. Geraldine had an automobile accident at the corner of 32nd Street and Cherry Avenue. Whenever she approaches the intersection now, she begins to feel uncomfortable; she feels very nervous and gets butterflies in her stomach, and her palms become sweaty.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

2. Calvin was chased & assaulted by an aggressive rooster when he was just barely three years old. As an adult he still gets little blips in his stomach when he hears the word "rooster" and he claims that birds make him nervous.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

Why do all birds make Calvin nervous?

Why does the word "rooster" cause him to have belly blips?

3. Art goes to a meeting in New Orleans and tries some oysters at the oyster bar. He likes the taste & eats quite a few. Soon he becomes feels very ill with an upset stomach. Now, even the thought of oysters makes him nauseous.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

4. When Trudy was 4, Trudy did not have any particular reaction to, or interest in, yardsticks. From the time she was 5 until she was 8, Trudy's parents beat her with a yardstick. Trudy was very upset every time she was beaten. Now, Trudy becomes very upset every time she sees a yardstick.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

5. Until she was 8, Barbara like cats. When she was 8 she was bitten through the hand by a cat as she tried to get it out from under a bed. This was an upsetting experience. Since that time, Barbara experiences anxiety whenever she is near a cat.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

6. It is summer time. Sarah & Jeremy are in love. They enjoy being together & are thoroughly relaxed & content in each other's presence. The hit song that summer is "Buckets of Love" and they hear that song often when they are together. At the end of the summer they have to return to their separate college, which, unfortunately, are very far apart. That fall, every time Sarah hears the tune "Buckets of Love," she experiences the same feelings of relaxation & contentment that she felt when she was with Jeremy.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

7. A researcher sounds a tone, then places a piece of meat into a dog's mouth, causing it to salivate. Eventually, the sound of the tone alone causes the dog to salivate.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

8. As your teenage son leaves the house & tells you "goodbye," he always slams the door. Recently, you've noticed that you flinch as soon as he yells "goodbye."

US: CS:

UR: CR:

9. A researcher flashes a light and then blows a puff or air into the research participant's eye. The participant automatically blinks. After a few trials, just the flash of the light will cause the participant to blink.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

10. On several occasions, Sybil's teacher gave her permission to draw on the blackboard. On each occasion, just as Sybil picked up the chalk, the recess bell that hung directly above where she was standing blasted a loud ring & startled her. Now, whenever Sybil is asked to write on the blackboard, she feels apprehensive about having to touch the chalk.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

11. Those of you with pets will definitely be able to identify with this one: When Jake first adopted his pet cat, Tiger, he was able to use his electric can opener without any interference. However, after using the can opener many times just before giving Tiger his canned food, Jake finds that when he tries to use the appliance Tiger starts to salivate.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

12. At his first big college party, Toby overindulged in screwdrivers and became very ill. A few months later at another party, Toby took a sip of a screwdriver and had to go throw up.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

13. Whenever Stefanie is with her best friend, Keith, they have a great time together and are both very happy and relaxed. Keith always wears Curve cologne. Now, whenever Stefanie smells Curve cologne, she feels happy and relaxed.

US: CS:

UR: CR:

 


ANSWERS:

1. US: Automobile accident CS: Sight of the intersection where the accident occurred

UR: Nervousness & anxiety CR: nervousness & anxiety (she feels uncomfortable & sweats)

2. US: the rooster assault CS: the word "rooster"

UR: nervousness & pain (hey, it hurts when you get attacked by an angry bird)

CR: nervousness - he gets blips in his stomach

Why do all birds make Calvin nervous? Stimulus generalization has occurred - Calvin's classically conditioned fear of roosters has spread to other similar stimuli - birds.

Why does the word "rooster" cause him to have belly blips? Higher Order conditioning!

3. US: Eating the oysters CS: thinking about oysters

UR: Getting nauseous & feeling sick to his tummy CR: Getting nauseous & feeling sick to his tummy

4. US: Getting beaten with a yardstick CS: the yardstick

UR: She gets upset CR: She gets upset

5. US: The cat bite CS: cats

UR: being upset CR: being upset

6. US: Being with Jeremy CS: The Song "Buckets of Love"

UR: feeling relaxed CR: feeling relaxed

7. US: piece of meat CS: sound of the tone

UR: salivating CR: salivating

8. US: loud noise from door slamming CS: saying "goodbye"

UR: flinching CR: flinching

9. US: puff of air to the eye CS: flash of light

UR: blinking CR: blinking

10. US: loud noise from bell CS: chalk

UR: feeling startled & apprehensive CR: feeling startled & apprehensive

11. US: food CS: the sound of the can opener

UR: salivation CR: salivation

12. US: Screwdriver consumption CS: the taste of a screwdriver

UR: vomiting CR: vomiting

13 J . US: being with Keith CS: The smell of Curve cologne

UR: feeling happy & relaxed CR: feeling happy and relaxed