To extinguish an operant conditioned response, you should withhold the ___________.
When you put quarters in a gum-ball machine, you receive _____________ reinforcement; when you put quarters in a slot machine, you receive ______________ reinforcement.
Marshall wears the same necklace to every exam. Explain how his superstitious behavior might have developed.
How would you use shaping to teach a friend proper diving techniques?
Professor Miller gives a quiz once a week; but he never tells the students
on what day the quiz will be. This is a _____________ schedule.
2. continuous, partial
3. It's a superstitious behavior. It probably developed when Marshall got a high grade on the first exam he took when wearing the necklace.
4. At first, praise every dive that approximates a proper dive, then successively praise closer & closer approximations to the second dive
5. Variable interval
Is it Positive or Negative Reinforcement?
A very bright, mildly painful light is turned on a rat. The rat has learned that he can turn off the light by pressing a lever on the other side of his cage. As soon as the light comes on, the rat runs across the room and presses the lever.
Answer: This is negative reinforcement. By executing the desired response, the rat removes a stimulus. The next time the light is turned on the rat, it will probably press the lever to turn off the light, thus ending the mild pain.
Nancy's behavior of leaving unclean dishes on the kitchen counter annoys her roommate, Sue. Sue has decided to change the situation by telling Nancy "I really appreciate your help in keeping the apartment neat," whenever she sees her rinsing & putting the dishes in the dishwasher. Lately Sue has noticed that Nancy consistently puts her dishes in the dishwasher as soon as she is done eating.
Answer: This is positive reinforcement. A stimulus (attention, compliments) is being applied which results in an increase in behavior on the part of Nancy. Whenver Sue caught Nancy doing the desired behavior (cleaning activities), Sue gives Nancy praise and attention. When Sue gives Nancy praise and attention, she is applying a stimulus. Because this stimulus is applied, Nancy's behavior increases. So: there was a stimulus applied and behavior increased, therefore, this is positive reinforcement.
TRUE OR FALSE?
FILL IN THE BLANK
1. operant conditioning
2. instrumental conditioning
5. Skinner box -or- operant chamber
7. primary reinforcer
IDENTIFY THE REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE
1. fixed ratio
2. variable ratio
3. variable interval
4. fixed interval
Hopefully this little review served as some assistance to you. But, remember, this is all purely supplementary in nature. You've still got to read your textbook and come to class. You wouldn't merely take vitamins without ever eating any food, would you?